Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Great Depression Essay - 682 Words

The Great Depression not only affected the United States but the world in general. In my estimation some the reasons for the depression was the combination of the greatly unequal distribution of wealth throughout the 1920’s and the debts not paid back from WWI. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The distribution of wealth in the 1920’s, â€Å"roaring twenties,† was done with despair between the very wealthy and the lower classes, between industry and agriculture within the United States, between the U.S. and Europe. This imbalance of wealth created an unstable economy. The excessive assumption in the late 20’s kept the stock markets artificially high, which eventually lead the large market crashes and the American economy to turn over.†¦show more content†¦nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The European nations were struggling to rebuild themselves from the damage after the war. The U.S. government lent the European allies billions of dollars for the war to purchase U.S. goods. After the war they were in no position to pay off debts. Their gold had flowed into the U.S. during and immediately after the war, ruining their own currencies. To make the wealth distribution between Europe and the U.S. even more devastating was the high t ariff policies put into effect on imports into the U.S. The effect of these tariffs caused the Europeans to be unable to sell their own goods to the U.S. in equitable quantities. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;To keep the economy going prices had to fall for people to afford to buy things. There was a high volume of goods building up, especially in the agricultural business. The government had been paying great amounts of money to the farmers for crops and things to support the war and encourages them to also expand on their land and plant more crops. Now that the war was over the government had pretty much stopped investing so much into the agricultural business, which led to many farmers going bankrupt. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The stock market, to me, is like another world of credit and debt. There were mass speculations through out the 1920’s that led to record volumes ofShow MoreRelatedThe Depression Of The Great Depression1223 Words   |  5 Pagesfar-reaching consequences as the Great Depression. This experience was the most extended and severe depression of the Western world. It was an economic downturn that began in 1929 and lasted until 1939. A large amount of America’s labor force lost their jobs and suffered during this crisis. During the nation’s financial disaster, Franklin Delano Roosevelt became president and made extensive changes to America’s political structure. The effects of the Great Depression had lasting consequences that areRead MoreThe Depression Of The Great Depression1232 Words   |  5 Pagespeople think that the stock crash was to blame for the Great Depression but that is not correct. Both the crash and depression were the r esult of problems with the economy that were still underneath society s minds. The depression affected people in a series of ways: poverty is spreading causing farm distress, unemployment, health, family stresses and unfortunately, discrimination increases. America tended to blame Hoover for the depression and all the problems. When the 1932 election came peopleRead MoreThe Great Depression Essay1390 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction: The world had faced two main economic problems. The first one was the Great Depression in the early of 20th Century. The second was the recent international financial crisis in 2008. The United States and Europe suffered severely for a long time from the great depression. The great depression was a great step and changed completely the economic policy making and the economic thoughts. It was not only an economic situation bit it was also miserable making, made people more attentionRead MoreThe Great Depression1292 Words   |  6 PagesBefore the crash Before the start of the great depression the United States was a country of great economic wealth, with new technology being invented and a boom in industry. Due to a boom in America’s Industry because of World War One the economy was at an all-time high with a tremendous amount of prosperity. Following the end of world war one the industrial might that America had was being used for peaceful, domestic purposes instead of being used for violence and war. New technologies like carsRead MoreThe Depression Of The Great Depression2071 Words   |  9 PagesPaul Von Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler Chancellor on the 30th January 1933. The Depression did play a vital role in this, however other factors such as the Nazis propaganda, the resentment of the Weimar republic and the political situation of 1932-1933 also contributed to his success. Before the Great Depression, the Nazis gained 12 seats and 2.6% of the vote in the May election of 1928. Despite this, by July 1932, Hitler gained 230 seats and 37.3% of the vote in the Reichstag. This is a dramaticRead MoreThe Great Depression1731 Words   |  7 PagesThe 1920’s was a decade of discovery for America. As mentioned in â€Å"who was roaring in the twenties? —Origins of the great depression,† by Robert S. McElvaine America suffered with the great depression due to several factors but it managed to stay prosperous at the end. In â€Å"America society and culture in the 1920’s,† by David A. Shannon there was much more to the great depression. It was a time of prosperity an economic change. Women and men were discovering who they were and their value to societyRead MoreThe Great Depression1551 Words   |  6 PagesThe Great Depression was one of the most devastating events recorded in history. The nation as a whole plummeted in one econ omic downfall. Few individuals escaped the effects of the depression. The hardship of unemployment and the loss of homes and farms were a large portion of the pain caused by the economic crisis. Through all of these sufferings, women had a large impact on society. Women faced heavy discrimination and social criticism during the Depression Even though through research it is provenRead MoreThe Great Depression1186 Words   |  5 Pagesfriends is the true definition of of what the Great Depression really was. It was a time that most people want to never remember or ever happen again. You would think the United States would have learned from their mistakes but it seems we are going down the same road once again without even taking a step back and realizing it. When people talk about the Great Depression not a single person will have anything good to say about it. It caused families a great deal of pain that they will never forget. WithRead MoreThe Great Depression1368 Words   |  6 PagesAfter WW1 the Great Depression had a very late impact on the major film companies in France, when it did, it unfortunately caused several film studios to go bankrupt, then in the late 1920’s to 1930’s many small film companies and groups emerged giving birth to the tendency called poetic realism. Because the large companies who made films with a focus on making money were gone the filmmakers and artists were able to concern themselves with the art of film, they often took poetic innovations thatRead MoreThe Great Depression1133 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"The only thing we have to fear is fear itself,† is a famous quote once said during the Great Depression by Franklin D. Roosevelt. After one world war, great financial fallout, and another world war to follow, the twentieth century was already shaping out to be a handful. When the Great Depression was coming to an end and the economy was trying to turn around, jobs started opening up and a new wave of imm igrants came into New York, the Puerto Ricans. For some the American dream was to come to

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Association in Java Definition and Examples

The association relationship indicates that a class knows about, and holds a reference to, another class. Associations can be described as a has-a relationship because the typical implementation in Java is through the use of an instance field. The relationship can be bi-directional with each class holding a reference to the other. Aggregation and composition are types of association relationships. Associations join one or more of one thing against one or more of another thing. A professor might be associated with a college course (a one-to-one relationship) but also with each student in her class (a one-to-many relationship). The students in one section might be associated with the students in another section of the same course (a many-to-many relationship) while all the sections of the course relate to a single course (a many-to-one relationship). Association Example Imagine a simple war game with an AntiAircraftGun class and a Bomber class. Both classes need to be aware of each other because they are designed to destroy each other: public class AntiAirCraftGun {   Ã‚  private Bomber target;   Ã‚  private int positionX;   Ã‚  private int positionY;   Ã‚  private int damage;   Ã‚  public void setTarget(Bomber newTarget)   Ã‚  {   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  this.target newTarget;   Ã‚  }   Ã‚  //rest of AntiAircraftGun class } public class Bomber {   Ã‚  private AntiAirCraftGun target;   Ã‚  private int positionX;   Ã‚  private int positionY;   Ã‚  private int damage;   Ã‚  public void setTarget(AntiAirCraftGun newTarget)   Ã‚  {   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  this.target newTarget;   Ã‚  }   Ã‚  //rest of Bomber class } The AntiAirCraftGun class has-a Bomber object and the Bomber class has-a AntiAirCraftGun object.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Understanding Dota Gamers Free Essays

string(36) " proof of attachment with the game\." DotA is an abbreviation of Defense of the Ancients which is a map modification from Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos and Frozen Throne based on the map of â€Å"Aeon Strife† of Starcraft, a team game focusing on hero combat. DotA is a five versus five game with two sides which are sentinel and scourge. The map is divided into three lanes where creeps automatically spawn. We will write a custom essay sample on Understanding Dota Gamers or any similar topic only for you Order Now The objective of the game is to destroy the opponent’s Ancient that is heavily guarded by several defensive towers which attacks hostile creatures. The map was developed with the World Editor of Reign of Chaos. The first DotA map was developed by anonymous modder known as Eul. He released DotA even before the Frozen Throne came out. Then another anonymous modder, Guinsoo, took over and converted DotA for the Frozen Throne, but he later stopped developing maps. Icefrog then took his place and is the current DotA developer. Game is commonly played with teams. Each team creates strategy to win the game. First, they pick hero, one hero for every player. Next, player buys item for the hero to make it strong. And proceed into one lane for defense and offense mode. Hero gains one gold, currency of the game, every second and forty for creeps and two hundred plus for hero kills. Player collects gold by farming, microing, and hostile hero killing to buy recipe items to be synthesized for an upgraded weapon. Also, hero gains level experience, up to level twenty five, every time they kill a creeps and heroes. Every hero has their own unique balance skill. Proper timing and usage of skill is one aspect that a DotA player needs to learn. Ever since the DotA was developed, the game had undergone many changes. Game bugs and glitch do appear and are reported by testers and players. It gives a thought that a modder is not the only developer of the game. The DotA community has their own share. â€Å"But despite all of the community’s help, it is still Icefrog, a man who may be named Jeremy, who may be from Boston and who may study at UCLA, which makes the final changes. The masses may be the power of the movement, but the figurehead and initiator of all that changes is still focused on a mysterious, almost spiritual figurehead. †1 The popularity of DotA has increased over time. The game can be played around local area network or online through battle. net. Battle. net allows one player to connect with other players in the internet. Garena provides interconnection of players for every game, in this case DotA. It has several rooms created by a host player inviting another player to join in. DotA was once featured in the magazine Computer Gaming World. Different tournaments were done and one of the famous is Electronic Sports World Cup in 2008. LAN tournaments are a major part of worldwide play. From game addiction to game creation, the League of Legends was released. It has the same environment with Defense of the Ancients, but an enhanced and improved graphics and animation and different characters, items and skills. Same goes with DOTA 2, the improvised DotA. Everything was remained. DOTA 2 is a whole new game. Even with DOTA 2 released, there are still player of the DotA. Pre-gamers think whether they will try the game or not. They are curious about the game. Things that in their mind are bad pictures like they will be bullied, will be laughed of, or will become attached to the game. They question themselves: why are existing players play DotA? How much fun can they get? How to play the game? With these questions in their mind, they are influence by their curiosity to start and play the game and find the answers themselves. They will seek assistance first, and then remember the basic controls and movements of the character for their next play. In other cases, curiosity is not the reason why someone starts to play DotA. It is the influence of their peers inviting the pre-gamer to join the club – DotA gamers. The friendship does not want to be broken. The known reputation of DotA being one of the most addictive games pushes the pre-gamer to decline playing. Some succeed in declining and others did not. It is because they are convinced by their friends to play DotA. Girlfriend of an existing DotA gamer is the common relationship status of girl players. They want to get the attention of their boyfriend. So, girlfriend asks her boyfriend to teach her and learn it herself so they can play and have fun together. Once they have tried the game, it will leave them impressions. The common impression is that it is not good because of the low quality graphical representation and the controls are hard to remember at first. It is also hard to kill an artificial intelligence character that a beginner will think the game is impossible, but this will change later. Another one impression is ‘disappointed’ because their first play could not meet their expectation and will not be satisfied with the result. Some quit at once while other continues. After getting the game’s information, a beginner will start to change his view towards the game. He/she will discover that the game is exciting, thrilling, and fun. He will practice playing to kill an AI character. This will lead to continuous playing and eventually improve his/her skills and strategies. When that happens, he/she will kill an AI and be ready to compete with other players. At middle time of a gamer, he/she finds DotA as a place of recreation and entertainment. His/her addiction of the game is showing. A gamer spends most of their free time playing the game solo or with friends. Other gamers still play sports and socialize with friends and play DotA afterwards. This case is a proof of attachment with the game. You read "Understanding Dota Gamers" in category "Papers" Some gamers treat DotA as a hobby. They only play for pastime or to entertain their self. They are not considered as addicted. On the other hand, a gamer is considered addict when he/she plays more than an hour, spends money to heat up the game, and chooses the game instead of socializing with others. There are other reasons or symptoms that based a gamer addicted. As time goes by, for existing gamers, they turn out to become advance game player. The game is as familiar as their house. Strategies are like rock, scissor, and paper game. They can switch to new strategy for whenever they want. In-game characters are like dolls they control as they command. â€Å"Change is the only constant†, said Heraclitus (535-375 BC). Changes show in the later time of the gamer. There are changes in gamers’ physical appearance, thinking capacity, socialization, and studies. These changes affect the player’s daily life. The gamer is different from his/her past self. If he/she attends a reunion, his/her relatives would think of him for another person. â€Å"Physical consequences of gaming addiction include carpal tunnel, migraines, sleep disturbances, backaches, eating irregularities, and poor personal hygiene. Carpal tunnel syndrome has long been associated with computer use, so it’s no surprise that it’s a physical symptom of gaming addiction. Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused when the main nerve between the forearm and hand is squeezed or pressed. This occurs when the carpal tunnel – the area of the wrist that houses the main nerve and tendons – becomes irritated or swollen. Overuse of a computer mouse can cause such irritation and swelling, as can excessive use of a video game controller. Migraine headaches typically start in one spot and slowly spread, getting more painful as they progress. In severe cases, the pain can be so extreme that it causes the sufferer to vomit. Light and noise can cause excruciating pain. Someone who plays video games for extended periods of time is more prone to migraines because of the intense concentration required and the strain put on the eyes. The term â€Å"sleep disturbances† covers several sleep-related disorders, including insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea, nocturnal myoclonus (periodic leg or arms jerks during sleep), and parasomnia (i. e. , night terrors, sleepwalking or talking, and nightmares). Sleep disturbances are caused, in part, by overstimulation of the brain. However, some people can’t get a good night’s sleep simply because they think obsessively about the game they’re playing. Backaches are a common physical symptom of gaming addiction because most gamers stay seated in the same position for hours on end. The lack of movement causes stiffness and soreness, but could deteriorate into chronic back problems. Eating irregularities are caused by gaming addiction simply because most addicted gamers don’t want to take the time to eat properly. Rather than eating healthy, balanced meals, they eat food that is quick and usually unhealthy. In extreme cases, the gamer may choose not to eat at all. An addicted gamer is not going to take the time to properly care for himself. Showers, face-washing, and brushing hair and teeth all get put on the back burner. It simply becomes less of a priority, if it’s a priority at all. These physical consequences will occur in varying degrees from one gamer to another. Though the severity of physical consequences is often tied to the severity of the addiction, this is not always the case. A gamer that is already in poor physical condition will be more susceptible to these effects early on. †2 Video game is also a cause of obesity particularly with kids. They eat while their character is dead and wait until it respawn. Gamer mostly eats unhealthy or foods with imbalance nutrients. They do not exercise even sometimes which results to gaining weight, and back and wrist pains. This case majority happens to addicted players. A game player’s intellectual capabilities varies depend on his/her attitude or personalities. It also depends on their way of thinking and past knowledge. Gamers with strong and sharp mind usually win a session game in DotA. Gamers’ mind thinks fast that is to establish game strategy and to take up the lead. This factor is a good effect of video game. He/she can make decisions fast but careful because he/she thinks as if he/she is still playing. He/she does not want to screw his game play and strategic plan. â€Å"Playing a game which requires very fast deployment of visual attention and motor movement could prime a strategy of speed over accuracy,† explained Nelson, â€Å"while playing a game which emphasizes a slower, more thoughtful pace could prime the opposite pattern. The main point is that different kinds of video games engage different cognitive and perceptual skills, and there are measurable differences in their effects, even in the short term. Similar results have been noted in previous research by Daphne Bavelier, of the University of Rochester in New York. She co-authored a study that showed video game players have improved hand-to-eye coordination, increased visual processing, stronger mental rotation skills and enhanced visuo-spatial memory. †3 Defense of the Ancients is not as addictive as massive mult i-online role playing game (MMORPG), where a player maintains and upgrades level and strength of his character and does not restart the character information after logging off. Meanwhile, DotA characters start at level one every session of game. DotA is more fun to play with peers than playing alone. The average length of a game session with user opponent is sixty minutes. Thus, it gives the player to interact with his teammate and opponents for an hour. It is virtual socialization, where a player speaks through the chat bar and dialog box, and interact with other player with his game character. Socialization in real life comes after a session. Gamers snacks together and talks about their finished game and criticize the player who cause the win or loss. It creates bonds and trusts for playmate. Gamers that play in computer shop increase their peers who they met and play the game with. Too much attachment to the game DotA affects relationships with family, relatives, friends and other people. A gamer that chooses to spend all of his free time and sleep for playing neglects his social interaction with relatives and in school. He only interacts with the player or peer he is playing with. And since he lacks sleep, there is a chance that he will fall asleep in class and affects his school performance. Peers changes the gamer’s way of socializing. The gamer absorbs the negative treatment onto him and do it himself onto other game player. He tries to bully weaker player – easy kill, easy money. And his way of speaking changes. Polite becomes impolite and occasionally turns to being rude. Some of his words are swap with words from the game, ixempli gratia, godlike and ‘imba’, which only a DotA game player understands. Most of his expression is about the game. He loves to talk all things about DotA only with other DotA player. He will not try to talk about it with non-gamer for they would not understand. Some gamers who are attached to the game do not fail in class. He manages his time carefully and controls his self with his decision to not set aside studies for computer game. Unfortunately, other gamers fall behind lectures. The common reason is lack of sleep. Gamer often yawn in class and inevitably fall asleep. Some gamers do not attend their first class and later drop the subject. There are gamer that do not spend their money allowance for snacks instead spend it for computer rental, if the gamer do not have computer at home or he just want to play DotA with other player. Other gamers decrease their time for study and spend it for socialization with peers through DotA. DotA had different tournaments. There are Local Area Network (LAN) tournament, online tournament, international tournaments and other tournaments. Advance players grab this opportunity to challenge their skills and to compete with other strong players, but the common reason for joining is the prize especially the cash. Winners gain reputation. Losers gain rivals. The population of DotA gamers consists mostly of students. Their allowance usually goes to computer rental. Other gamers are nonstudent, with occupation and bystander. Bystanders have more free time to play though they have insufficient fund for renting computer though they can only play alone at home through internet if they have computer. Those advance gamers with jobs are the ones who usually place bets to heat up their game. This is a form of gambling. They even place bets though they are only watching. Gamers make money through winning bets and tournaments. Experience is knowledge. We gain lessons in every experience. Experience sharpens our personality. Our mistake is a lesson to avoid and improve the right one. Gamers experience the changes which were discussed in the last topic. While playing DotA, gamers experience different feelings and emotions like hunger, fun, excitement, and thrill. These emotions are triggered by neurotransmitters such as endorphins and dopamine. These brain chemicals are responsible for animals’ sense of pleasure. The brain secretes these chemicals when the body feels excitement, joy, or pain. Even a fake smile can cause pleasure and trick the body that it is happy. â€Å"Then, there’s the excitement. A good game will get your pulse racing and your adrenaline pumping, even if you’re just sitting on the couch holding a controller. Games with a time component amplify this excitement, even in simple games like Jewel Quest where you’re down to one second before everything blows up because you didn’t find the three matching gems. †4 During the game session, the hand-to-eye coordination is used. Most of the time, hands and eyeballs are the only part of the body that moves. They seldom stretch their hand, legs, and neck. Parts of the body that is not use become weak. DotA gamers experience lack of sleep because of playing. The gamers do not care of time during the session. His focus and attention are in the game only. They ignore other matter even emergency calls and text messages are ignored. Reply is given upon the end of the game session. These are reasons why parents and girlfriend/boyfriend, if there is any, get upset. Based on the observation of the researcher, gamers , particularly on weekend, start to play at nine in the morning and finish at about four the next morning, then get some rest and come back playing. They said, they only eat, take small amount of time to sleep, wake up, eat again, take a bath, then go to internet shop to resume his play. For students, they usually play after class hours. They are sometimes distracted by the thoughts of DotA while in the class. They are excited for class dismissal. They come home late and make their parents anxious. Some of these students are being fetched by their parent. Some act shy, on the other hand, some act tough and proud. In Internet shop, gamers are happy, and noisy. During the session, they shout and trash-talk each side even the watchers shout. Harsh and mean words are trash-talk like ‘weak’, ‘lousy’, ‘slow’, and ‘gay’. The competition each game is intense. Gamers who lose often get bullied and easily angered. Later, this bullied player, sometime, cause trouble and brawl. Losers feel sad, depression, and shame, and think for a new strategy to win the next game. They gain rivals to overcome, putting more time for practice game to improve tactics. On the other hand, winners celebrate, feels fun, and gain challengers. Some gamers quit, but there are new players who replace them. The reasons of new players are curiosity towards the game, seek of fun, peer pressure, and friendship. People find ways to eradicate pressure and boredom. One of it is playing DotA. The game DotA has effects depends on the physical and mental capacity of the gamer. Weak-willed mind and poor health are more susceptible to game addiction and negative changes in their personality and body. Playing the game reduces time for socialization and study. Game players must learn how to control their selves to refuse from overuse of time and money for playing. Parents must watch their kids. It is hard to forbid kids from playing video game. This action can cause the kids to rebel. So, give them outdoor activity like sports to balance their mind and body. Definition of terms Bugs are small insect. Bugs, in computer program, is an error, flaws, or mistake in a computer program that produces an incorrect or unexpected result, or causes it to behave in unintended ways. Farming ,in agriculture, it is an activity of growing crops and raising livestock. Farming, in DotA, is an act of collecting gold. figurehead is a person given a position of nominal leadership but having no actual authority. Glitch is a minor malfunction, or technical problem. Godlike means resembling or having the qualities of God or a god. In DotA, it is a call for having nine consecutive player kills. Imba is an abbreviation for â€Å"imbalanced†. Imba can be applied to a subject in gaming (Weapon, army, race, role or job) which can be either too strong (Overpowered, or OP) or too weak (Underpowered, or UP). Insomnia is a specific kind of sleep disorder in which the patient is not able to get into sleep or the patient is not able to remain asleep for an adequate period of time Jerk is a single quick motion of short duration. Micro is a word comes from the Greek word micros meaning small. Micro (microing),in DotA, is an act of last hitting creeps. Narcolepsy is a condition characterized by an extreme tendency to fall asleep whenever in relaxing surroundings. Parasomnia, from the Latin meaning â€Å"around sleep,† is a sleep disorder characterized by abnormal sleep behaviors. Parasomnias involve unconscious complex, semi-purposeful, and goal-directed behaviors that have meaning or importance to the individual. These can include night terrors, sleepwalking, sleep eating, sleep sex, rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder, or any number of potential behaviors that occur while the person remains asleep. re-gamers means a potential game player that is not yet a game player. Respawn Also known as spawn, respawn is a gaming term used to describe the action of a computer player or human player coming back to life after being killed. Restless leg syndrome (Nocturnal myoclonus) is a disorder in which there is an urge or need to move the legs to stop unpleasant sensations. Screw is a metal fastener having a tapered shank with a helical thread, and topped with a slotted head, driven in to wood or the like by rotating, especially by means of a screwdriver. Screw means to mess something up, turn things for the worse. Sleep apnea is the temporary stoppage of breathing during sleep, often resulting in daytime sleepiness. Apnea is a Greek word that means â€Å"want of breath. † Spatial memory is the part of memory responsible for recording information about one’s environment and its spatial orientation. Trash-talk is a form of boast or insult commonly heard in competitive situations. Visuospatial is pertaining to perception of the spatial relationships among objects within the field of vision. How to cite Understanding Dota Gamers, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Do Woman Make Better Leaders free essay sample

However, when women leaders are putting glorious greatly, they need to sacrifice their parts of life to earn such a success. Mostly, they need to work overnight and hard like their male fellows, they are single or divorced, and they may need to take care of both of their career and children. Actually, female leaders are facing some practical problems in their emotion, career and family. Many females are suffering in balancing these factors. Do women make better leader than men? Or specifically, are women playing a better role in managers? What are issues women leaders facing? In order to solve these problems and leave no doubt, I write this essay to analyze this topic. 2. 1 Leadership According to the professional definition, â€Å"leadership is the process of influencing an organized group toward accomplishing its goals. †(Roach Behling, 1984) There are certain basic qualities or characteristics that most people associate with leadership, such as self-confidence, persistent, integrity, ambitious and determination. People would agree that who own these qualities can be labeled as â€Å"leaders†. However, it is usually hard to recognize a proper leader with a standard measurement. Human traits are quantized immeasurable. In daily works, a good leader is normally judged by people he or she leads. Unfortunately, these opinions are always subjective and biased. Work performances may consider being comparable. However, in reality, only similar works can provide comparable performance results which limit the number of comparable cases. Insufficient parameters cannot provide a reliable analysis. Due to these difficulties, this essay will compare female and male leaders in other factors which are not specialized and quantized for leaders but also providing references for good leaders. These factors include effectiveness, intelligence and attitude which compare leaders in the aspects of performances; psychical and psychological; values and reliability, respectively. Before comparison and analyzing, it is more reasonable to realize the current situation about gender and leadership which will also give readers a general idea. 2. 2 Men are still the major force in leaders Actually, majority of world still consider that domination of power is in man’s hand, though women leaders are increasing rapidly recent years. As statistics show, woman account for 51 percent of population and 46. 5 percent of labor force while their numbers in manage level are negligible. In fact, in more powerful positions, women only account for 7. 3 percent of Fortune 500 corporate line officers; only 4. 1 percent of top earners are women. (Catalyst, 2001) The true situation is like what Oakley ,J. G. said,† The overall percentage of women on corporate boards surpassed the 10% milestone for the first time in 1996, however, 105 out of the 500 companies surveyed still had no women on their boards. †(Oakley, 2000; Dobrsynski, 1996) In making such a males’ world, social and environment factors play critical roles. Traditionally, women are told to be less competitive and ambitious when they are still girls, when they start their careers, mostly, environment and themselves keep suggesting them to be more unleader-like and docile. This attitude is formed in a long period and by surrounding environment, and it actually becomes part of female’s character. Attitude toward leadership is stronger predictor of leader emergence than masculinity. (Kolb, 1999) This theory is even more reasonable when biology theory is abandoned. Generally, majority of leaders is still male , the roles that women are told to play and attitudes they are suggested to own is signaling to be â€Å"second class†. 2. 3 Woman leaders show great potential It is undoubtedly men are traditionally leaders in the society; nevertheless, women are catching up in an amazing speed. Especially in recent years, woman leaders are showing their great power. In a long period before, people believe that women lack of managerial skills and they define it as â€Å"female deficiencies† as a reason why few women have made it to the top. Steven, Lynda and Joanne, 2003) However, many professors have proved the irrationality of this stereotypical concept, Davidson and Burke (DavidsonBurke,1994) have contended that almost all the evidence shows little or few difference in the traits and abilities of managerial skills among women and men. Furthermore, Ferrario(Ferrario,1994), Carless(Carless,1998) and Komives (Komives,1991) have studied and p roved that gender does not determine who should get the leadership. According to above statements, it is easy to realize that gender is not physical or psychical obstacle for female leaders. Moreover, Kent and Moss suggested the possession of feminine characteristics does not decrease an individual’s chances of emerging as a leader as long as the individual also possesses masculine characteristics. If women are more likely to be androgynous, they may have better chance of rising to leadership status. (Kent and Moss, 1994) Kent and Moss’ words can be explained related to women’s own characteristic. Normally, women are more approachable and modest. The advantage is obvious above; male leaders cannot combine female’s good personalities which will be considered to be sissy while females will treat androgynous as a merit which show their potential. So, in some kinds of careers which require managers to be more mild and communicative, such as teachers and nurses, woman leaders are more preferred. To sum up, women’s characteristic advantage is seen as particularly important in light of the trends toward flatter organizations, team-based management and increased globalization. Oakley,2000; Adler,1993;Rosener,1995) Undoubtedly, woman leaders have predominance in some specific works than man leaders 2. 4 Gender and the leadership 2. 4. 1 Intelligence comparison Intelligence is defined by Cronbach as a person’s all-around effectiveness in activities directed by thinking. (Cronbach, 1984) Intelligence can divide in two parts, academic intelligence and emotional intell igence. In the aspect of academic intelligence, it is well accepted that there is no difference in academic intelligence between men and women. Furthermore, people with high academic intelligence don’t mean they are good leaders. Obviously, traditional view about intelligence is quite narrow. Current research has denied the theory of IQ as the only measure of intelligence. In 1920 Thorndike hypothesized that true intelligence was composed of not only an academic component, but also emotional and social components. (Barbara Shilpa, 2003) Bar-on argued that emotional and social intelligences were better predictors of success in life. (Bar-on, 1997) According to Barbara Shilpa’s statistic analysis, the mean transformational leadership score of females and males are roughly the same (65. 21 and 63. 31 respectively). The mean emotional intelligence score for females was higher than the mean emotional intelligence score for females (109. 58 and 98. 31 respectively). (Barbara Shilpa, 2003) Although the results of the current study suggest that females have scored higher than males in emotional intelligence, it is possible that women as compared to men scored higher on empathy or social skills and low on motivation or self-regulation. However , male and female’s leadership score is very close which can prove that different genders have differences in EQ, but no capability difference in leadership. To sum up, there is no specific gender difference in academic intelligence. Females have a higher score in emotional intelligence and males have an equally emotional leadership score with females. 2. 4. 2 Attitude comparison Attitude means a general and enduring positive or negative feeling about some person, object or issue. (Kalliath, 2010) Normally, we divide attitude in two parts, one is the affective component, and the other one is the behavioral component. Actually, leadership is affected by attitudes in the sense that a leader’s attitude about their subordinates is dictated by theories X and Y. Theory X in the simplicity means leaders view their subordinates as pessimistic. They believe that the best way to treat subordinates is by manipulating for they think subordinates are lazy and unmotivated. Theory Y thinks oppositely, leaders of theory Y feel that most people are motivated and afraid of punishment. (Kalliath, 2010) Normally, leaders with a positive self-concept and a Theory X philosophy tend to be bossy, pushy and impatient; they also generally take on a dictatorial leadership. Leaders with a negative self-concept and a Theory Y philosophy may seem afraid to make decisions and self-blaming. Hughes, Ginnett Curphy, 1993) Related to above apart, women’s attitude is an obstacle for their leadership. This disadvantage is caused by environmental and cultural factors. All stereotyping views towards woman will affect them when they are becoming leaders. However, according to theory X and Y, they generally talk about two types of leaders. It can be seen that gender is not the major factor in attitude. To sum up, woman leaders are normally have more problems in their attitude and valuation than their man opponents. 2. 4. 4 Effectiveness comparison Effectiveness is understood in terms of leaders’ facilitation of a group or rganization’s ability to meet its goals. (Hunt, 1991; Mumford, 1986) It is stated that there is no difference in effectiveness, although some situations favor women and others favor men. (Powell, 1993)However, some people point out that female leaders may be less effective when they are doing stereotypically masculine jobs. It is easy to understand that women may violate conventions concerning appropriate female behavior. Female leaders will be subjected prejudiced reactions, which included biased performance evaluations and negative preconceptions about future performance. Consistent with research on self-fulfilling prophecies (Geis, 1993), negative opinion towards women’s leadership can diminish their performance. Even though, some professors argue that role conflict for female leaders might also be minimized by adopting a relatively feminine leadership style that would meet people’s traditional expectations about female behavior. (Eaglly, Makhijiani, Klonsky, 1992) They assert that it is unfair to value the effectiveness in leadership roles that are rarely occupied by women and in which most of their evaluators are male. (Eaglly, Makhijiani, Klonsky, 1995) In order to analyze this issue, two perspectives are introduced: alternative perspective and contingency theory based perspective. As a matter of fact, alternative perspective also have two parts, the first one is a structure view suggests that men and women are equally effective in leadership. (House, 1991Hunt, 1991) Another alternative view takes into account the different selection of men and woman for leadership. Besides gender equality opinion, it also points out that women may be superior performers, especially in the longer run as they may erode negative thinking about their work. Craig Jacobs, 1985) The second perspective is of contingency theories of leadership, suggests that leaders’ effectiveness depends on their style of leading. (Bass, 1990) It focuses more in the aspect of leadership style. It insists that effectiveness of different gender is related to corresponding factors in leadership methods, not gender. In a word, although male leaders are considered more e ffective in traditional masculine jobs, female leaders are more effective than males in less masculine terms. Effectiveness is a reliable proof of the woman leadership is not worse than man leadership. Although some people still believe woman leaders are using some inefficient management methods when they are most in masculine works. It can be expected that females will fare at least as well as men in an increasing range of leadership and managerial roles. 3. Conclusion From the days of old to the modern world, people who have the opinion that men are born to lead and women should serve as followers are out of date. No one can deny the gender equality in the current society. Leaders are no longer the exclusive privilege for men, but also for excellent females. We start to realize the importance of analyzing this topic and have taken a close look at some of the most basic qualities needed in a successful leader, such as attitude, intelligence and effectiveness. While some qualities seem to be more present in males than females, such as attitude, there are still many females owning the necessary characteristics to be better leaders, such as effectiveness in feminization jobs. This essay collects studies that analyzed leadership under rigorous researches and we have also taken a close look at some of the more recent studies on this topic.

Wednesday, April 1, 2020

Billy the Kid essays

Billy the Kid essays Billy the Kid was born in the East, came to New Mexico in the 1870 ¡s, and started out on his own from Silver City. Some of the people said Billy the Kid was a hero, some said he was a murder. After reading Etulain ¡s essay,  ¡Billy the Kid: Thunder in the West ¡ (36-51), I don ¡t think Bill the Kid was a hero just because he killed four people. What is a hero? Some one can be a hero if he kills another, and heroes can kill people, but they kill those people is for everyone, not just for themselves, which means they were heroes because they killed evil people who destroyed society. And a hero should deserved punishment bravery. Otherwise they are murderers. Unfortunately, Billy the Kid was a murder, not a hero. The first example of Billy the Kid as a murderer concerns the first person he killed in Arizona (37). In mid-August 1877, Billy the Kid came to the cantina near the boundary of the Camp Grant military reservation (37). When he arrived, a burly Blacksmith named Cahill called Billy a  ¡pimp, ¡ (37) and then Billy retaliated by calling the blacksmith a  ¡son of a bitch, ¡(37). A moment later a wrestling match ensued, and Cahill began to pummel Billy. But Billy pulled out the .45 stuck in his belt, shoved it into the belly of Cahill, and then pulled the trigger. Cahill rolled aside in agony and then died the next day. Thus, because senseless act of violent, Billy the Kind murdered Cahill. I know it was Cahill that said the bad things to him first, but Billy the Kid didn ¡t have to kill Cahill. When Cahill started to say something bad to Billy the Kid, he could have ignored him and left Cahill alone. If Billy the Kid at that time had just ignored what Cahill said, no thing would have happened. Cahill ¡s dead did not benefits anyone in the world except Billy, who may have felt happy. Therefore, Billy the Kid was a murderer, because he killed Cahill. The second example of Billy the Kid being a ...

Saturday, March 7, 2020

The Disappearance of Afro-Argentines and Colonialism essays

The Disappearance of Afro-Argentines and Colonialism essays At first glance of the current Buenos Aires, one would pre-conclude that the population is purely white or of European ancestry. However, after reading the book authored by George Reid Andrews, one would think otherwise. As the author noted in his book, the population of the Afro-Argentines who obviously were in existence during the 1800s did not dwindle to nothing as many people described it. The mass of historical commentary on the Afro-Argentines disappearance have explained the phenomena as the result of four main reasons. The first being that the Afro-Argentines had been drafted and then perished during the wars of the nineteenth century in large numbers. The second reason was because Afro-Argentine women were faced with the shortage of men of their own race, they turned to the European male immigrants as partners, also in hopes of producing lighter-skinned children who would have a chance of upward social mobility. The third explanation was that low birth rates and high mortality rates were especially pronounced in the Afro-Argentine communities because of their unsanitary living conditions and their inability provide for their young due to the lack of men and their low social status. Th e fourth reason was that slavery was abolished and the import of slaves had declined dramatically. While all the reasons listed above were valid and has unquestionably contributed to the wane of the Afro-Argentine population, they were superficial, a facade for the underlying factor of their seeming demise. The beginning of the decline of the Afro-Argentine population was marked by the censuses taken starting from the early 1800s. The author proposes that blacks were underrepresented in the censuses taken during that period because of a variety of causes. In his opinion, since they lived in the least desirable houses and neighborhoods, many census takers were most likely unwilling to venture into those places to complete their...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Share your critical response Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Share your critical response - Assignment Example s out that it took efforts of the federal government which represents collective action of many of the American citizens to abolish slavery, to create a developed system of railroads and bring the country to prosperity. In other words, it would not be wise to reject the leading role of the government in the process of development of the social environment. In other words, why would people want to get rid of something that has proven to be effective? Another example is taken from the current political world. The author suggests that when both far left and right argue the necessity of a new revolution, they fail to see that they are faced with a dilemma that none of them is able to solve. For example, governmental surveillance is needed to protect people from terrorism, but if we accept it we should also accept that it violates some of the basic rights of the people. Gutting, Gary. "You Say You Want a Revolution." Opinionator You Say You Want a Revolution Comments. N.p., 2 July 2013. Web. 30 Sept. 2014.